3. Energy Production
35. Explain how lipid and protein catabolism can be integrated with carbohydrate metabolism.
36. Define beta-oxidation and explain what it does.
Lipases hydrolyze lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.
Fatty acids and other hydrocarbons are catabolized by beta oxidation.
Beta oxidation produces two carbon units that are linked to CoA to make acetyl-CoA.
Catabolic products can be further broken down in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.
Before amino acids can be catabolized, they must be converted to various substances that enter the Krebs cycle or glycolysis.
Transamination (transfer of NH2), decarboxylation (removal of COOH), and dehydrogenation (H2) reactions convert the amino acids to be catabolized into substances that enter the glycolytic pathway or Krebs cycle.
Bacteria and yeast can be identified by detecting action of their enzymes.
Acid production on the left from fermentation of glucose, alkaline end products from protein degradation on the right .
Fermentation tests are used to determine whether an organism can ferment a carbohydrate to produce acid and gas.
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