Infectious†Diseases†Sorted†by†Etiological†Agent

Type Etiological Agent Disease Disease Comments Treatment
Bacteria Bacillus anthracis Anthrax Exotoxin, septicemia; cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational forms, inhalational is most dangerous form. Ciprofloxacin or doxycycline plus additional agents; vaccine available but requires a series of six injections over 18 months.
Bacteria Bacillus cerus Gastroenteritis, Bacillus cereus Heating doesn't always kill spores, B. cerus grows rapidly and produces toxins.Resembles C. perfringens intoxications Usually self-limiting; oral rehydration
Bacteria Bacteroides fragilis Infections of puncture wounds or surgical incisions, peritonitis   imipenem (Primaxin), piperacillin-tazobactam (Zosyn), ampicillin-sulbactam (semi-synthetic penicillins ) +/- cephalosporins
Bacteria Bartonella henselae Cat-scratch disease (fever) Systematic infection, prolonged fever; usually self-limiting although may be fatal. Azithromycin
Bacteria Bordetella pertussis Whooping cough Endotoxin and exotoxin, inactivates cilia in upper respiratory tract, mucus accumulates, spasms of intense coughing to clear mucus. Erythromycin, clarithromycin better tolerated
Bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme disease, relapsing fever Immune responses responsible for second phase arthritis Doxycycline or amoxicillin, ceftriaxone or cefotaxime for late complications
Bacteria Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi Relapsing fever Transmitted by soft ticks, characterized by high fever that lasts 3-5 days and may be in excess of 105 F.Three or four relapses may occur. Penicillin, broad spectrum antibiotics
Bacteria Branhamella (Moraxella) catarrhalis Otitis media   Amoxicillin/clavulanate po; alternatives: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin or azithromycin), tetracycline - doxycycline, cephalosporins
Bacteria Brucella abortus Brucellosis Most common species in US, disease is usually mild and self-limiting.Formerly acquired mostly by ingesting cow or other milk. Now mostly by contact with animal carcasses.Pathogen grows within phagocytic cells. Doxycycline + streptomycin or gentamycin
Bacteria Brucella melitensis Brucellosis (Undulant fever) Most common species in the rest of the world, disease is severe, often resulting in disability or death.Fever typically spikes to about 104 F each evening, thus the name undulant fever. Doxycycline + streptomycin or gentamycin
Bacteria Brucella suis Brucellosis Occasional formation of destructive abscesses. Doxycycline + streptomycin or gentamycin
Bacteria Burkholderia cepacia Nosocomial infections Metabolizes accumulated lung secretions in persons with cystic fibrosis Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), cephalosporins, tobramicin (aminoglycosides)
Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni Gastroenteritis, Campylobacter Microaerophilic pathogen found in animal intestinal tracts; very common cause of gastroenteritis.Linked to Guillain-Barre' syndrome(1 in 1000 cases) Usually self-limiting; oral rehydration
Bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae Pneumonia, bacterial (Chlamydial) Atypical. Mild, resembles mycoplasmal pneumonia Tetracycline
Bacteria Chlamydia psittaci Psittacosis (Ornithosis) Transmitted by contact with bird droppings, forms elementary bodies Tetracycline
Bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis Conjunctivitis (Inclusion) Swelling of eyelid; mucus and pus formation; transmitted to infants during birth and is transmitted in unchlorinated swimming water. Tetracycline (doxycycline) or a macrolide (azithromycin)
Bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) Swelling in lymph nodes in groin. Tetracycline (doxycycline) or a macrolide (azithromycin)
Bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Chronic abdominal pain; possible infertility. Tetracycline (doxycycline) or a macrolide (azithromycin)
Bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis Trachoma Conjunctivitis causes scarring of eyelid that mechanically damages cornea, often causing secondary infections; transmitted by hands, fomites, and perhaps flies. Tetracycline (doxycycline) or a macrolide (azithromycin)
Bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis Urethritis (nongonococcal) Painful urination and watery discharge.In females, possible complications such as PID. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin, a cephalosporin) or ciprofloxacin (fluroquinolone) + doxycycline
Bacteria Clostridium botulinum Botulism; wound botulism Exotoxin preformed in foods, causes paralysis and respiratory failure; infant botulism due to production of toxin by ingested bacteria - normal intestinal flora not well established in children under 1 year of age, spores often found in honey Antitoxin, antibiotics of almost no use because toxin is preformed
Bacteria Clostridium perfringens Gas gangrene Exotoxin Penicillin with antitoxin; surgical removal of necrotic tissue and amputation; may treat with hyperbaric oxygen.
Bacteria Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis, C. perfringens Exotoxin, associated with meats or meat stews contaminated with intestinal contents of the animal during slaughter. Usually self-limiting; oral rehydration
Bacteria Clostridium tetani Tetanus Exotoxin, formed in contaminated wound causes uncontrolled muscle contractions, eventual respiratory failure. Antitoxin, (Tetanus Immune Globulin, TIG) penicillin
Bacteria Corynebacterium diptheriae Diptheria Exotoxin interferes with protein synthesis; damages heart, kidneys, and other organs.Membrane forms in throat.Cutaneous form also occurs. Pencillin and erythromycin in conjunction with antitoxin
Bacteria Coxiellaburnetii Q fever Usually subclinical, not transmitted by insect or lice bites. Tetracycline
Bacteria Ehrlichia spp. Ehrlichiosis Two forms: Human graulocytic erlichiosis (HGE) and human moncytic ehrlichiosis (HME).Tickborne diseases with a reservoir of infection in animals. Doxycycline
Bacteria Enterobacter species Pneumonia, bacterial Atypical. Piperacillin/tazobactam + tobramycin (penicillin + aminoglycoside) or Clindamycin + ciprofloxacin (lincosamide - like a macrolide + fluoroquinolone) or
Ceftazidime or Imipenem +/- aminoglycoside (
cephalosporin or penicillin +/- aminoglycoside)
Bacteria Enterococcus faecalis Sepsis, Gram-positive Nosocomial Nafcillin + gentamicin or Nafcillin + ciprofloxacin; Vancomycin for resistant organisms; Synercid for VRE; Zyvox for Synercid resistant organisms
Bacteria Enterococcus faecium Sepsis, Gram-positive Nosocomial Nafcillin + gentamicin or Nafcillin + ciprofloxacin; Vancomycin for resistant organisms; Synercid for VRE; Zyvox for Synercid resistant organisms
Bacteria Escherichia coli Cystitis Difficulty or pain in urination Cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, gentamicin
Bacteria Escherichia coli Endotoxin shock Endotoxin Cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, gentamicin
Bacteria Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis, enteroinvasive Shigella-like dysentery Usually self-limiting; oral rehydration
Bacteria Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis, enterotoxigenic; Travelerís diarrhea/Montezumaís revenge Exotoxin (enterotoxin); Watery diarrhea that resembles mild form of cholera Usually self-limiting; oral rehydration
Bacteria Escherichia coli Pneumonia, bacterial Atypical. Piperacillin/tazobactam + tobramycin (penicillin + aminoglycoside) or Clindamycin + ciprofloxacin (lincosamide - like a macrolide + fluoroquinolone) or
Ceftazidime or Imipenem +/- aminoglycoside (
cephalosporin or penicillin +/- aminoglycoside)
Bacteria Escherichia coli Pyelonephritis Fever, back or flank pain. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), cephalosporins, gentamicin (aminoglycosides)
Bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 Gastroenteritis, enterohemorrhagic Adherence to intestinal mucosa and production of shiga toxin causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome Antibiotics, dialysis, transplants (severe hemolytic uremic syndrome)
Bacteria Francisella tularensis Tularemia (rabbit fever, deer fly fever) Results from infection from handling small animals such as rabbits;enters by skin abrasions, ingestion, inhalation, bites.Ulceration, conjunctivitis, may cause sepsis and multiple organ infection.Can cause pneumonia when inhaled. Streptomycin
Bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum Occurs in cases of trench mouth along with spirochetes    
Bacteria Gardnerella vaginalis Vaginitis Fish odor, frothy vaginal discharge, presence of clue cells. Metronidazole (Flagyl) (eliminates anaerobes but allows lactobacilli to repopulate)
Bacteria Haemophilus aegyptus Conjunctivitis (Contagious) Along with Haemophilus influenzae, staphylococci and streptococci one of the most common etiological agents of conjuctivitis; transmission is by contact. Erythromycin, sulfacetamide, tobramycin or gentamycin ointment
Bacteria Haemophilus ducreyi Chancroid (soft chancre) Painful ulcers of genitals, swollen lymph nodes in groin. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin, a cephalosporin) or Erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Bacteria Haemophilus influenzae Acute epiglottitis Most dangerous - epiglottis swells and blocks airway Hib vaccine available, infants donít respond; Rifampin; chloramphenicol or ampicillin, both in serious infections; second generation cephalosporins
Bacteria Haemophilus influenzae Meningitis, bacterial Most common cause of bacterial meningitis before Hib vaccine became available in 1988, occurs primarily in children under age 4. Hib vaccine available, infants donít respond; Rifampin; chloramphenicol or ampicillin, both in serious infections; second generation cephalosporins
Bacteria Haemophilus influenzae Nasopharyngitis Diseases occur mostly children, adults usually immune. Hib vaccine available, infants donít respond; Rifampin; chloramphenicol or ampicillin, both in serious infections; second generation cephalosporins
Bacteria Haemophilus influenzae Otitis media   Hib vaccine available, infants donít respond; Rifampin; chloramphenicol or ampicillin, both in serious infections; second generation cephalosporins
Bacteria Haemophilus influenzae Pneumonia, bacterial (Haemophilus influenzae) Atypical. Symptoms resemble pneumococcal pneumonia Hib vaccine available, infants donít respond; Rifampin; chloramphenicol or ampicillin, both in serious infections; second generation cephalosporins
Bacteria Helicobacter pylori Ulcer (Gastric and duodenal), stomach cancer Erodes gastric mucosa Bismuth +Metronidazole (Flagyl) + tetracycline (triple therapy); Rantidine bisuth sulfate + clarithromycin is newer and better; dual therapy with antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors may be even better
Bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumonia, bacterial Atypical. Piperacillin/tazobactam + tobramycin (penicillin + aminoglycoside) or Clindamycin + ciprofloxacin (lincosamide - like a macrolide + fluoroquinolone) or
Ceftazidime or Imipenem +/- aminoglycoside (
cephalosporin or penicillin +/- aminoglycoside)
Bacteria Legionella pneumophila Pneumonia (Legionellosis) Atypical.Poterntially fatal pneumonia that tends to affect older males who drink or smoke heavily.†† Erythromycin
Bacteria Leptospira interrogans Leptospirosis (kidney infection) Headaches, muscular aches, fever; kidney failure a possible complication Erythromycin, penicillin, tetracycline
Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes Listeriosis Usually transmitted by contaminated food.Main danger is to fetus. Penicillin G
Bacteria Mycobacterium bovis Tuberculosis of bone (spine) and/or lymphatics Tuberculosis of cattle transmitted to humans; Attenuated strain is used for BCG vaccine Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol
Bacteria Mycobacterium leprae Leprosy (Hansen's disease) Bacteria grow in PNS; eventually cause extensive tissue damage. Dapsone, rifampin, and clofazimine in combination; vaccine available as adjunct to chemotherapy; BCG vaccine is also somewhat protective
Bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis Systemic (milliary TB) infection, consumption Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol
Bacteria Mycoplasma pneumonia Pneumonia, bacterial (Mycoplasmal) Primary atypical or walking pneumonia Cephalosporin +/- Macrolide: erythromycin, clarithromycin, or azithromycin
Bacteria Neisseriae gonorrhoea (gonococcus) Gonorrhea Invasive; males experience painful urination and discharge of pus; females exhibit few symptoms but possible complications such as PID may occur. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin, a cephalosporin)
Bacteria Neisseriae gonorrhoea (gonococcus) Neonatal gonorrheal ophthalmia Acute infection with much pus formation; if treatment is delayed, ulcers form on cornea; transmission is from an infected mother to an infant during its passage through the birth canal. Silver nitrate, tetracycline, or erythromycin for prevention
Bacteria Neisseriae gonorrhoea (gonococcus) Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Chronic abdominal pain; possible infertility. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin, a cephalosporin)
Bacteria Neisseriae meningitidis (meningococcus) Meningitis, bacterial (meningococcal) Affects mostly children under age 2.Group A causes widespread epidemics inAfrica; group C in US vcauses local outbreaks.Invasive Ampicillin, ceftriaxone (Rocephin), chloramphenicol for patients allergic to penicillin
Bacteria Nocardia asteroides Mycetoma Localized destructive infection of the feet or hands Sulfonamides, TMP/SMX, minocycline
Bacteria Pasteurella multocida Sepsis Transmitted by animal bites Penicillin and tetracycline
Bacteria Propionibacterium acnes Acne Inflammatory lesions originating with accumulations of sebum that rupture a hair follicle Benzoyl peroxide, isotretinoin, azelaic acid
Bacteria Proteus species Food Poisoning   Polymixins, nitrofurantoin
Bacteria Proteus species Urinary tract infections Opportunistic; Endotoxin Polymixins, nitrofurantoin
Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burn infections Opportunistic, resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants; Several exotoxins, endotoxin.Infections have a characteristic blue-green pus caused by the pigment pyocyanin. Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin), Aztreonam (a monobactam), Carbenicillin (a carboxypenicillin), Gentamicin; silver sulfadiazine to treat burn infections
Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dermatitis Superficial rash, however Pseudomonas is opportunistic, resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants; Several exotoxins, endotoxin Usually self-limiting
Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa Otitis externa Superficial infection of external ear canal, however Pseudomonas is opportunistic, resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants; Several exotoxins, endotoxin Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin), Aztreonam (a monobactam), Carbenicillin (a carboxypenicillin), Gentamicin
Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia, bacterial Atypical. Opportunisitic Piperacillin/tazobactam + tobramycin (penicillin + aminoglycoside) or Clindamycin + ciprofloxacin (lincosamide - like a macrolide + fluoroquinolone) or
Ceftazidime or Imipenem +/- aminoglycoside (
cephalosporin or penicillin +/- aminoglycoside)
Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa Wound infections Opportunistic, resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants; Several exotoxins, endotoxin.Infections have a characteristic blue-green pus caused by the pigment pyocyanin. Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin), Aztreonam (a monobactam), Carbenicillin (a carboxypenicillin), Gentamicin
Bacteria Rickettsia prowazekii Typhus, epidemic Transmitted by lice (Pediculus humanus corporis); high fever, high mortality rate. Tetracycline, chloramphenicol
Bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky Mountain spotted fever Transmitted by ticks (Dermacentor species); rash, fever, headache, high mortality rate. Tetracycline, chloramphenicol
Bacteria Rickettsia tsutsugamushi Typhus, scrub   Tetracycline, chloramphenicol
Bacteria Rickettsia typhi Typhus, endemic murine Rodents are commonly hosts, transmitted by the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis; resembles epidemic typhus buyt mortality rate is low. Tetracycline, chloramphenicol
Bacteria Salmonella enterica Food Poisoning (Salmonellosis) Infection type (enterotoxin produced in bowel); Inhabit animal intestinal tracts, contaminate foods.Invade and multiply in intestinal epithelial cells.Do not invade neighboring cells but can enter the bloodstream, causing nausea and diarrhea. Antibiotics not useful; oral rehdyration therapy
Bacteria Salmonella typhi Typhoid fever Invasive, can multiply in macrophages; Shed in human feces; incubation period is about 2 weeks, symptoms include high fever, disseminated infection, significant mortality rate. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) or other 3rd generation cephalosporins
Bacteria Shigella dysenteriae Dysentery (Shigellosis) Shed in human feces, invade and multiply in intestinal epithelial cells.Infection spreads to neighboring cells, causing tissue damage and dysentery.Shiga toxin causes severe dysentery and prostration Fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin)
Bacteria Shigella sonnei Dysentery (Shigellosis) Invasive and exotoxin, relatively mild dysentery Usually self-limiting
Bacteria Spirillum minor Rat-bite fever (Spirillar fever, Asian rat-bite fever, Sodoku) Fever, headche, muscle aches, inflammation at bite site, complications include endocarditis. Penicillin
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Carbuncles (abscesses) Exotoxins Oral: Cephalexin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate; Clindamycin, TMP-SMX, minocycline,linezolid for resistant strains.
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis, Acute bacterial Exotoxins IV: Oxacillin, nafcillin, w or wo gentamicin;vancomycin w gentamicin and rifampin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Folliculitis Infection of hair follicle; Exotoxins Drain pus; Oral: Cephalexin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate; Clindamycin, TMP-SMX, minocycline,linezolid for resistant strains.
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Food Poisoning Toxin type (enterotoxins produced in the food) Nafcillin, oxycillin; vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Furuncles (Boils) Exotoxins IV: Oxacillin, nafcillin;vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Impetigo of the newborn Highly contagious superficial skin infection; Symptoms - thin-walled vesicles that rupture and crust over; transmission by contact Hexachlorophene skin lotions
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Otitis media Build up of pus in middle ear puts painful pressure on eardrum Nafcillin, vancomycin for resistant organisms
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Pimples Exotoxins Oral: Cephalexin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate; Clindamycin, TMP-SMX, minocycline,linezolid for resistant strains.
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia, bacterial Atypical. Nafcillin (a penicillin);vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Scalded skin syndrome Exfoliative toxins Oral: Cephalexin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate; Clindamycin, TMP-SMX, minocycline,linezolid for resistant strains.
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Sties Exotoxins Oral: Cephalexin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate; Clindamycin, TMP-SMX, minocycline,linezolid for resistant strains.
Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Toxic shock syndrome Fever, rash, shock; Exotoxins Penicillin; Cephalosporins or macrolides (Azithromycin, Clarithromycin [Biaxin], Telithromycin [Ketek]); vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Streptobacillus moniliformis Rat-bite fever (streptobacillary rat-bite fever) Fever, headche, muscle aches, inflammation at bite site, complications include endocarditis. Penicillin
Bacteria Streptococcus (α-hemolytic) Endocarditis, Subacute bacterial Commonly found in oral cavity; Lodge in pre-existing lesions, form clot nuclei Ampicillin, ceftriaxone (Rocephin), chloramphenicol for patients allergic to penicillin; vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae (group B) Sepsis, Gram-positive Most common cause of life-threatening infections in newborns. Nafcillin + gentamicin or Nafcillin + ciprofloxacin
Bacteria Streptococcus mutans Dental Caries Accumulations of plaque allow localized acid production by bacteria, forming hole in tooth. Drill it and fill it.
Bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia, bacterial (Pneumococcal) Typical. Infected alveoli fill with fluids; interferes with oxygen uptake Nafcillin (a penicillin);vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis, bacterial (pneumococcal) Occurs in children under age 4 and hospitalized elderly.Highest mortality rate of bacterial meningitis since Hib vaccine became available. Ampicillin, ceftriaxone (Rocephin), chloramphenicol for patients allergic to penicillin; vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae Otitis media   TMP-SMX po
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Erysipelas Reddish patches on skin, often with high fever; Invasive, autoimmune cross-reactivity Oral: Cephalexin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate; Clindamycin, TMP-SMX, minocycline,linezolid for resistant strains.
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Impetigo Symptoms - thin-walled vesicles that rupture and crust over; transmission by contact Oral: Cephalexin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate; Clindamycin, TMP-SMX, minocycline,linezolid for resistant strains.
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Otitis media   Oral: Cephalexin, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate; Clindamycin, TMP-SMX, minocycline,linezolid for resistant strains.
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Puerperal sepsis Life threatening complication of childbirth or abortion Nafcillin or oxycillin; vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Rheumatic fever Invasive, autoimmune cross-reactivity Nafcillin or oxycillin; vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Strep throat (may be accompanied by scarlet fever) Inflammed mucous membranes of the throat. Invasive, autoimmune cross-reactivity Amoxicillin, ampicillin; vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) - erythrogenic toxin producing strains Scarlet fever Streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) causes skin and tongue reddening, peeling of affected skin.Invasive, autoimmune cross-reactivity Nafcillin or oxycillin; vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (invasive group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Cellulitis Invasive, attacks solid tissue, exotoxin A acts a superantigen causing immune cross-reactivity. Nafcillin or oxycillin; vancomycin for penicillin-resistant strains
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (invasive group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Myositis Invasive, attacks muscle, exotoxin A acts a superantigen causing immune cross-reactivity. Nafcillin, oral dicloxacillin, clindamycin for penicillin allergy
Bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (invasive group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Necrotizing fascititis Invasive, attacks muscle covering (fascia), exotoxin A acts a superantigen causing immune cross-reactivity.; Extensive tissue destruction Surgical removal of tissue; Penicillin + clindamycin + aminoglycoside (or ciprofloxacin)
Bacteria Streptococcus species Pericarditis    
Bacteria Treponema pallidum Syphilis Initial sore at site of infection, later skin rashes and mild fever.Final stages may be severe lesions, damage to cardiovascular and nervous systems.Tertiary symptoms due to cell-mediated hypersensitivity and inflammatory responses of phagocytes although few progress to tertiary stage today. Penicillin
Bacteria Vibrio cholerae Gastroenteritis, Vibrio Non-O1 Mild diarrhea Usually self-limiting; oral rehydration
Bacteria Vibrio cholerae O:1 and O:139 Cholera, Asiatic Exotoxin causes diarrhea with large loss of water and electrolytes; no invasion of tissue. Tetracycline (doxycycline); oral rehydration more important
Bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis Exotoxin causes choleralike diarrhea, but generally milder. Usually self-limiting; oral rehydration
Bacteria Vibrio vulnificus Gastroenteritis, sepsis Dangerous to people suffering from liver disease. Doxycycline
Bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica Gastroenteritis, Yersinia (yersinosis) Endotoxin; Inhabits animal intestinal tracts, grows slowly at refrigerator temperatures.Symptoms are abdominal pain and diarrhea, usually mild.May be confused with appendicitis. Usually self-limiting; oral rehydration
Bacteria Yersinia pestis Plague Endotoxin, septicemia; Clasically transmitted by fleas from a reservoir in rats; in western US endemic in rodents. Streptomycin
Bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Gastroenteritis, Yersinia (yersinosis) Endotoxin Clinically ill patients & septicemia: ampicillin; others: gentamicin; tetracycline
Fungus Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin poisoning Aflatoxin may contribute to cirrhosis and liver cancer, likely to be found on many foods, particularly peanuts In cases of ingestion, feeding large quantities of an adsorbent such as activated charcoal may be used. Antioxidants such as ellagic acid and inducers of some cytochromes P450, such as indole-3-carbinol, may give a protective effect.
Fungus Blastomyces dermatidis Blastomycosis Spreads from lungs, causes abscesses, severe Itraconazole (non-life threatening, non-meningeal); Amphotericin B for life threatening or CNS infections
Fungus Candida albicans Candidiasis Severe vaginal itching, yeasty odor, yellow discharge. Fluconazole po; miconazole, clotrimazole, and nystatin (topically)
Fungus Candida albicans Thrush Opportunistic.Thrush is infection of oral mucosae. Symptoms vary with infection site; usually affects mucous membranes or moist areas of skin. Fluconazole po; miconazole, clotrimazole, and nystatin (topically); ketoconazole (IV) for systemic candidiasis.
Fungus Candida albicans Vaginitis, Candidiasis Opportunistic.Vaginitis is infection of vaginal mucosae.Symptoms vary with infection site (severe vaginal itching, yeasty odor, yellow discharge); usually affects mucous membranes or moist areas of skin. Fluconazole po; miconazole, clotrimazole, and nystatin (topically); ketoconazole (IV) for systemic candidiasis.
Fungus Claviceps purpurea Ergot poisoning (ergotism) Mycotoxins can restrict blood flow in limbs resulting in gangrene; may also cause hallucinations Gastric lavage, activated charcoal, support for respiratory and renal failure.
Fungus Coccidiodies immitis Coccidioidomycosis Progressive disease, resembles T.B. Amphotericin B
Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcosis Severe meningitis transmitted by inhalation of fungus, often from bird droppings Amphotericin B and flucytosine in combination
Fungus Epidermophyton spp. Ringworm (tinea) Skin lesions of highly varied appearance; on scalp may cause local loss of hair. Griseofulvin (orally), miconazole, clotrimazole (topically)
Fungus Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasmosis Respiratory, usually subclinical, transmitted in bird droppings Itraconazole (non-life threatening, non-meningeal); Amphotericin B for meningeal infections
Fungus Microsporum Ringworm (tinea) Skin lesions of highly varied appearance; on scalp may cause local loss of hair. Griseofulvin (orally), miconazole, clotrimazole (topically)
Fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly P. carinii) Pneumonia, pneumocystis Atypical. Opportunistic. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX)
Fungus Sporothrix schenckii Sporotrichosis Ulcer at site of infection spreading into nearby lymphatic vessels Potassium iodide solution (orally).
Fungus Trichophyton Ringworm (tinea) Skin lesions of highly varied appearance; on scalp may cause local loss of hair. Griseofulvin (orally), miconazole, clotrimazole (topically)
Helminth Ascaris lumbricoides Ascariasis Helminths live off undigested intestinal contents.Transmitte by ingesting eggs from feces.Usually few symptoms. Mebendazole
Helminth Diphyllobothrium latum (fish) Tapeworm infection Helminth lives off undigested intestinal contents with few symptoms.Usually transmitted by ingesting larvae in meats. Praziquantel and albendazole
Helminth Echinonococcus granulosus Hydatid disease Larvae form in body; may be very large and cause damage.Transmitted by ingesting tapework eggs. Surgical removal, albendazole to kill cysts
Helminth Enterobius vermicularis Pinworms Itching around anus. Pyrantel pamoate and mebendazole
Helminth Necator americanus, Ancyclostoma duodenale Hookworms Larvae enter through skin.Large infections may result in anemia. Mebendazole
Helminth Schistoma larvae of nonhuman animals Swimmersís itch Allergic reaction to the parasite in the skin Most cases do not require medical attention.  Topical use of corticosteroid cream may be used for relief.
Helminth Schistosoma sp. Schistosomiasis Eggs lodge in tissue and induce inflammatory response. Praziquantel and oxamniquine.
Helminth Taeniasoluim (pork) Tapeworm infection Helminth lives off undigested intestinal contents with few symptoms; pork tapeworm may cause larvae to form in many organs (neurocysticercosis) and cause damage; in this case the eggs are infectious - humans can be the intermediate host.When humans act as the primary host the worms are transmitted by ingesting larvae in meats. Praziquantel and albendazole
Helminth Taenia saginata (beef) Tapeworm infection Helminth lives off undigested intestinal contents with few symptoms.Usually transmitted by ingesting larvae in meats. Praziquantel and albendazole
Helminth Trichinella spiralis Trichinosis Larvae encyst in striated muscle.Transmitted by ingestion of larvae in meats.Usually few symptoms, but large infections may be fatal. Mebendazole and corticosteroids
Parasite Pediculus humanus capitis Pediculosis (lice) Itching, presence of nits Topical insecticide preparations (1% permethrin or pyrethrin); removal of nits
Parasite Pediculus humanus coporus Pediculosis (lice) Itching, presence of nits; transmits disease (epidemic typhus, Rickettsia prowazekii) Topical insecticide preparations (1% permethrin or pyrethrin); removal of nits
Parasite Pthirus pubis Crabs Itching, presence of nits Topical insecticide preparations (1% permethrin or pyrethrin); removal of nits
Parasite Scaroptes scabiei (mite) Scabies Papules due to hypersensitivity reaction to mites Gamma benzene hexachloride, permethrin (topically)
Prion Prion Spongiform encephalitis (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) Rare but fatal, spongiform encephalitis, has a heritable form. None
Prion Prion Spongiform encephalitis (Kuru) New Guinea tribes practicing ancestor worship by eating the brains of dead tribe members (not victims). None
Prion Prion Spongiform encephalitis (Transmissible mink encephalitis)   None
Prion Prion Spongiform encephalitis, Bovine(mad cow disease)   None
Prion Prion Spongiform encephalitis, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) similar to CJD, inherited.   None
Prion Prion Spongiform encephalopathy, (Scrapie) Occurs in sheep None
Protozoa Acanthamoeba Acanthamoeba keratitis Corneal inflammation leading to blindness Topical propamidine isethionate or miconazole; corneal transplant or eye removal surgery may be required.
Protozoa Babesia microti Babesiosis A tick-borne disease that resembles malaria, usually subclinical. Atovaquone and azithromycin in combination.
Protozoa Balantidium coli Dysentery, Balantidial Transmitted in cyst stage from contaminated food or water.Pigs are a host. Tetracycline, with metronidazole(Flagyl) and  iodoquinol as alternatives
Protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidiosis Shed in animal feces, causes self-limiting diarrhea.Respiratory and gallbladder infections in immunocompromised patients Oral rehydration
Protozoa Cyclospora cayetanensis Cyclospora diarrheal infection Diarrhea associated with raspberries Trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX)
Protozoa Entamoeba histoltica Dysentery, Amoebic Lyses epithelial cells of intestine, causes abscesses; significant mortality rate. Metronidazole (Flagyl) plus iodoquinol
Protozoa Giardia lamblia Giardiasis Forms cysts; Adheres to intestinal wall, may inhibit nutritional absorption.Causes diarrhea. Metronidazole (Flagyl) or quinacrine hydrochloride
Protozoa Leishmania sp. Leishmaniasis Skin sores, damage to mucous membranes, systemic disease of deep body organs depending on species.Transmitted by sandfly. Drugs containing the toxic metal antimony, amphotericin B, recently miltefosine.
Protozoa Naegleria fowleri Meningocephalitis, Naegleria Usually classified as a free-living amoeba but has flagellated form as well, usually acquired by swimming in streams or ponds; infects nasal mucosa and later proliferates in brain. Fatality rate is nearly 100%; Diagnosis is typically made at autopsy, however if caught in time amphotericin B is effective.
Protozoa Plasmodium sp. (P.faciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale) Malaria A mosquito-borne disease, characterized by fever and chills at intervals. Quinine and derivatives chloroquine, primaquine, and mefloquine.Malarone is a new combination drug, as effective as mefloquine and less toxic.Increasing use of artemisinin.
Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasmosis Mild in immunocompromised adults, may cause sever fetal damage if initial infection occurs during pregnancy. Pyrimethamine with sulfadimiazine.Doesnít affect the chronic bradyzoite statge and is toxic.
Protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis Urethritis (nongonococcal)   Tinidazoleor Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis Vaginitis, Trichomoniasis No cysts, causes vaginitis (Vaginal itching, greenish-yellow discharge); usually nonsymptomatic in males. Tinidazoleor Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Protozoa Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T.b. gambiense African trypanosomiasis Transmitted by tsetse fly bites, affects CNS, leads to coma and death Suramin and pentamidine moderately effective, donít alter diseaseís course.Melarsoprol alters course of disease but is very toxic.Eflornithine, introduced in 1992, is so effective even late that it is referred to as the resurrection drug; more effective against T. b. gambiense, melarsoprol still recommended for T.b. rhodesiense
Protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi Chagasí disease (American trypanosomiasis) Transmitted by reduviid bug, damages cardiac muscle or smooth muscle in esophagus and colon Difficult to treat due to low efficacy and toxicity of drugs available.Benznidazole or nifurtimox effective when given in acute stage, chronic stage requires management strategies.
Virus Alphavirus (Arbovirus) Encephalitis, arboviral; eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), western equine encephalitis (WEE), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), and West Nile encephalitis. Transmitted by mosquitoes. Prevention: vaccination and control of mosquito population.
Virus Coronavirus Upper respiratory infections, common cold.   None
Virus Coxsackie B virus Myocarditis   None
Virus Coxsackie B virus Post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS), chronic fatigue syndrome   None
Virus Cytomegalovirus(HHV-5) Cytomegalic inclusion disease Usually inapparent, chronic, latent.Estimated 80% of the population carries the virus.Disease appears usually when host is immunocompromised and severity of disease correlates with severity of immunosuppression.Symptoms include pneumonia, hepatitis, mononucleosis, and arthritis.Risk of graft rejection increases significantly with CMV infection. None
Virus Dengue Fever Virus (an arbovirus) Hemorrhagic fever, viral; Dengue Fever A classic viral hemorrhagic fever, relatively mild, similar to yellow fever, transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito  
Virus Ebola virus (a filovirus) Hemorrhagic fever, viral Same as Marburg virus, an emerging viral hemorrhagic fever.Ebola has a mortality rate of close to 90%.  
Virus Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Burkittís lymphoma Infects B cells and is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. None
Virus Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) Infectious mononucleosis Infects B cells, symptoms include malaise and lethargy, pharyngitis, lymph node enlargement, spleenomegaly, fever. None
Virus Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis, infectious Acute hepatitis, mild disease, mostly malaise, often subclinical.90% recovery, fecal-oral inoculation.  
Virus Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis, serum Transmitted by blood and other body fluids, including sexual activity.Severe disease likely to cause liver damage; about 10% of cases become chronic.  
Virus Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis, serum Blood-borne non-A non-B hepatitis, similar to HBV but more likely to become chronic  
Virus Hepatitis D virus Hepatitis Severe liver damage with high mortality rate.Must be coinfected with HBV  
Virus Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis, serum Enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis; similar to hepatitis A, pregnant women may have high mortality rate.  
Virus Hepatitis F virus Not characterized yet    
Virus Hepatitis G virus Not characterized yet    
Virus Hepatitis H virus Not characterized yet    
Virus Herpes simplex 1 Cold Sores Cold soresĖ usually oral transmission may be respiratory, lesions on upper body. Acyclovir may modify symptoms
Virus Herpes simplex 1 Genital herpes Usually transmitted genitally, oral-genital contact may be a factor.Lesions appear as sores after cell lysis.Virus persists in latent state and is fairly easily reactivated (UV exposure, fever, radiation, stress).  
Virus Herpes simplex 1 Herpetic keratitis May progress to corneal ulcers and severe damage Trifluridine may be effective
Virus Herpes simplex 2 Genital herpes Usually transmitted genitally, infections of lower body.Lesions appear as sores after cell lysis.Virus persists in latent state and is fairly easily reactivated (UV exposure, fever, radiation, stress).  
Virus HTLV I, HTLV II      
Virus Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) AIDS Immunosuppression Anti-retrovirals and protease inhibitors
Virus Human parvovirus B19 Erythema infectiosum, fifth disease From a 1905 list of skin rash diseases: 1. measles 2. scarlet fever 3. rubella 4. Filatow-Dukes disease 5. erythema infectiosum 6. Roseola infantum; Mild flu-like symptoms, facial rash, maculopapular rash on trunk and limbs. None
Virus Influenza viruses Influenza Types A, B, and C.Segmented genome allows extensive recombination leading to antigenic changes.Transmitted by inhalation, infects respiratory mucosa, allows secondary bacterial infections to occur after epithelial denudation. Tamiflu early may be helpful.Vaccines are type specific.
Virus Lassa fever virus (an arenavirus) Hemorrhagic fever, viral; Lassa Fever Like Ebola, spread among humans by contact with body fluids.  
Virus Lassa-like viruses (arenaviruses) Hemorrhagic fever, viral; Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fevers Emerging viral hemorrhagic fevers  
Virus Marburg virus (a filovirus) Hemorrhagic fever, viral An emerging viral hemorrhagic fever; initiates from contact with infected monkeys or tissues, may be passed secondarily by contact with secretions or unsterilized instruments.Human-human contact inefficient.Acute fever, muscle pain, abdominal pain, rash, severe gastrointestinal bleeding, generalized hemorrhage, shock, death.  
Virus Mastadenovirus Respiratory infections in humans, some cause tumors in animals.    
Virus Measles virus Measles, red (rubeola) Skin rash of reddish macules first appearing on face and spreading to trunk and extremities.Transmission by inhalation usually, spreads to lymph nodes, infects T-cells.Antibody titer rises, rash appears (probably immune complex mediated hypersensitivity), fever, cough, conjunctivitis.Recovery is usually rapid, complete, and imparts lifelong immunity. Vaccination provides effective long-term immunity.
Virus Measles virus Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis A rare complication of measles that occurs mostly in males 1-10 years after recovery from infection.Sever neurological symptoms and death within a few years. Vaccination provides effective long-term immunity.
Virus Mumps virus Mumps Half of infections are inapparent.Invades upper respiratory tract and lymph nodes, spreads to target organs (most common is parotid gland).Can cause orchitis (testicular inflammation) in post-pubescent males, may result in sterility. Vaccine available.
Virus Norwalk Agent (Noroviruses, Norwalk-like viurses) Gastroenteritis Immunity is poor. Self-limiting
Virus Papillomavirus spp. Genital warts Warts in genital area.HPV-16 associated with close to 90% of cervical cancers, especially serious in South Carolina. May be removed by liquid nitrogen, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation, acids, or lasers.
Virus Papillomavirus spp. (Papovaviruses) Warts A horny projection of the skin, formed by proliferation of cells.Some warts are sexually transmitted. May be removed by liquid nitrogen, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation, acids, or lasers.
Virus Poliovirus Poliomyelitis Transmitted mainly with ingested water.About 1% of cases result in at least partial paralysis.Loss of anterior horn cells (motor neurons) causes flaccid paralysis, sometimes of diaphragm (thus the use of the iron lung).Three different serotypes of the virus. Vaccination Ė Salk vaccine developed in 1954 is a formalin inactivated vaccine (IPV Ė inactivated polio vaccine), requires repeated injection, may be as high as 90% effective.Sabin vaccine introduced in 1963 contains 3 living attenuated strains of the virus, taken orally (OPV Ė oral polio vaccine); immunity resembles natural immunity but attenuated strains may revert to virulence.
Virus Rabies virus (Lyssavirus) Rabies Zoonotic, transmission by contact with infected animals. Virus spreads from wound to brain along neurons.Incubation is 1 week to 1 year depending on site of wound.Symptoms include cerebral hyperirritability, rage, pharyngeal muscle spasm, alternating mania and coma until death, usually by respiratory failure (destruction of respiratory center. Vaccine available, treatment includes injection with immune globulin and vaccine.
Virus Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Pneumonia, viral (RSV disease) Atypical. A serious respiratory disease of infants and the elderly.Viral pneumonia may also be a complication of influenza, measles, or chickenpox; may be caused by a number of different kinds of viruses, including parainfluenza viruses (measles and mumps viruses) and adenoviruses.  
Virus Rhinovirus Common cold Over 300 different viruses, makes vaccine development impractical. None
Virus Roseolovirus (HHV-6) Roseola infantum (sixth disease, exanthem subitum) High fever, generalized rash, rapid and complete recovery None
Virus Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Immunity acquired to most strains after initial infection, makes incidence of infection in adults less common than in children.New vaccine approved in Feb. 2006. Self-limiting
Virus Rubella virus Congenital rubella syndrome Congenital rubella syndrome can affect a fetus when a woman contracts rugella during the first trimester of her pregnancy.Damage from congenital rubella syndrome includes stillbirth, deafness, eye cataracts, heart defects, and mental retardation.  
Virus Rubella virus Measles, German (Rubella) A red rash and light fever might occur in an infected individual; the disease can be asymptomatic.Respiratory transmission, imparts long-lasting immunity.  
Virus Sin Nombre hantavirus Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome Frequently manifests as a fatal pulmonary infection, spread by aerosols from field mouse excretions.  
Virus Varicella zoster (HHV-3) Chicken Pox (varicella) Vesicles in most cases confined to face, throat, and lower back.Primary infection is chicken pox, may be accompanied by pneumonia and encephalitis in immuno-compromised children; more severe in adults, usually accompanied by pneumonia.Transmission is respiratory. Acyclovir for immunocompromised patients, vaccine available.
Virus Varicella zoster (HHV-3) Shingles (herpes-zoster) Vesicles similar to chickenpox; typically on one side of waist, face and scalp, or upper chest.Virus remains dormant in dorsal root or cranial nerve ganglia, reactivated by stress, travels down nerve fiber and causes painful blisters in the relevant dermatome.Unexposed people can contract chicken pox from zoster lesions but not vice versa; primary exposure imparts immunity to exogenous infection. Acyclovir for immunocompromised patients.
Virus Variola major Smallpox,(pox Ė vesicopustular skin eruptions). Pustules that may be nearly confluent on skin; systemic viral infection affects many internal organs.Transmission is respiratory. None
Virus Yellow Fever Virus (Flavivirus, an arbovirus) Hemorrhagic fever, viral; Yellow Fever A classic viral hemorrhagic fever transmitted by mosquito bites.Hepatic necrosis, jaundice, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, mortality rate of 80%; Yellow fever prohibited significant colonization of large parts of South and Central America until controlled (elimination of mosquito population); Panama canal was discontinued until the disease was controlled. Vaccine is now available.